սڼ˹ܾŷ޵ԵθԵΪһҡ33

    ֮ܶƶԼ̵ʷԨԴڵ߼ͶԴڽŷߣӳ˶ԵεĻʹйĻ̬ȡ

    ĵּǾ󿴡йߵʷԨԴǣ̽־ܴ߹̵IJͬ׶嶯ԼӰ⽻ߵЩ֪Ĺصо

 

Լеġ˹ء

 

    ˹ءȻDZԼӿ춫ٶΨһĶ϶ҪĿǡ仰˵˹ƺߵı仯ԼԽԽìܣӷ̼˱Լͼȷͼǿһ棬Ӹ㷺Ŀռԣ˹Ӱ졢úͼֵҪرҪˣ˹ԶûͻḶ̌ҲӰ˺ͽӰսʤɹʱߡķͼӷӵг˹ìܵ߼㣬ڹͶĶԺ˫ϵݱرҪġ

    նľʹŷһȳڻȸԾ֮Уƺ컯Ҫ塢вġ⡱֮ŷ޵̫ƽʢѾŷ޽нҶ˹ԼҲȷˣѸȷʽƣھʵгõ񣬲֤ΪΨһǵߡȻ˫ܿͷⲢô򵥡

    гõӽǽͣսս¡ġƶ塱߼ʵǣڲг̨ĸΪ壨ңŷͬгԭ򣨹ֵۣͬǰ£ͨijƶȺ͹򣬹淶ǵΪǿǵ໥ӶﵽгȶĿġɴ˿ɼ趨ĹȶĺǸΪĿԤԺȷԡȻ˹ϵijЩȡõĽչǵijЩģĹͬǡǡܣҲܽĵ⣬ȻҲӰ˹ϵؼ⣬˹δȥܶ˹ĵͼijȷı֤ĿǰĴ𰸶ҪôDzʵģҪôDzġ˹ĸĸȻƺƴȴЧ΢ת񵴺ͳֵһϵⲻΣƶȵȶҲ˷19931995ѡԳЩĴġһϲDzΰ˹ġϲǶ˹Σʹڳʱһ겻񣨲Ƚ˹ƣ1015ڶΣ״̬ȴһIJǵǶ˹δDzȷģȻвŷްȫȶҪԴ˹ʹ˶ĵġ

    Ӵͳʵ۳ȻֳͻҪȷDZڵĵˣ϶ʵĵ˾սŷ޳ֵġĵIJȶӰµºӵɽҲŷ޿ƽģѸٳΪһսգ⽫ijֺ;Ե⽻ӶտƵض34׵Ƕ˹IJȶԼɴ˿һϵ⣨ɢͻȵȣ˵սڼľ˼롢ֵƶȡȵвôǵĶ˹Ķ¹ϯ³ɳƽ˵ԶһȶԤϵĶ˹ȻúװȫDz֪ǵʵں̶ֳڶ˹ٽеơ35

    Ҫͳһļֵ۳ΪϷչ׳Ķ˹˼ʶ̬ΪġͳһֵǸģ˹ϽԿĵ۹ĵ·ǿ˹Ȼƻƶȷȡ˲תĽչȻΪ˹˳طչΪгòͬߵĿҵ뷨ҲˡָڶһȱͳĹңʹЩʿ˼ľҲδΪֲ˼άʽеĻܣܿij˼롣Ƚ˹϶ֻƤŵʽȨ36ԣر𡰱ۡԤ⣺˹ھ֮ΪͬжԵһȨ塢塢۹Ĺҡ37

    ɴ˿ɼ˹ĿǰĺDZڵķչ״ʢеֹʹϵ˼άꡣˣӻʢٵӴΪҪֶΡȡ˹ŷȶĹͬʱעֹ۹ĸܶŷɵΣ

    ̸˹ضԶĴ̼ʱܲᵽ˹һ⡣ǿԽΪһֵ͵ġСϷģʽͼͼм趨Լ˹˫ͶԭЭ˫ʧ2֣趨Լֶ䷶ΧܲĿǰձͬIJٽ˹ãԼ5֣˹ʧ5֣趨˹ɹضס˶˹5֣Լʧ5֣趨Լ˹Ͷⷢشͻ˫ʧ20֡Ȼֲؼһ׼ȷĺϢȻڶԭȷǰȷ󣬶˹ṩʮֻҺìܵźšʱʾԼҲԸ뱱ԼʱΪԼսʾѡɣǿµĶԿͷѡڴ¿ܵѡʵǺٵģȻֹͣӻһܱ֤˹δġôֻܼ¶ƶ˹ĵԵս԰šָ֮һ۵ķ⣬ΪԶ϶Ӱ죬߲Ǿеġ

   

    Ī˹ҲԭͶϣûʵ֡һ˹ΪսԼδսսܹԴ˹Ҷ˹ӦΪһƽȵĻǿšɿʵִĿ;ǡչҵУЩռʷԼȷӦеĵλ仰˵˹ȻѣһŽǿֲ֤ͨܲǼѵ¡ǣö˹˺ЩջǣȻΪ磬ŷӰȨǰһõСƣȽ˹˵ĿֻһǰԵĴڹϺ֮ڶ˹תǵͼУʵʩµЪƻʵתͲʹĹؼɵ⣬ṩģԮDZ֤˹ĸﲻתһͶʣ˶òǾϵĺοԴŵҪʵܡҲġܣΪĿǰ߱һȱӲȱĹѪܣΪڶ˹δչȱԤԵ£Ԯг׼ϱȻҪհǰ˺ʹ˹˴ϵƭĸо

    ˹ϵķΪһЩĵߡȻ˹ϣĵλ˹׼ԼʵǿԶĿơָǰԵսԾݵӰ졢ƶйȹսԺϵȻ˹ԮҪ󣬶˹ͼͨھijЩ߼ʽѣЩڶȻҲЩεĹҡ˹ߵı仯ֽһǿIJθСرģ˹ǿڶ쵼ãڵԵϻָ۹ͳǰס˹ìܾͬѩһԽԽ󡣱ԼƻҲ˶ͲϽչɴֵ˫ŷްȫְϵĶ

    ŷ޽Ƕ˹⽻Ĵͳָ˼롣⵽䱣֤ȫԵΪҪԣΪŷ֯ڸ߲Ρ㷺սϴŷްȫЧƣԼŷ˺ͶӦΪƽʵŷЭͿ֮£Ϊŷްȫ֧ͬʵʾǣ˹ΪŷްȫеΣȻҲӦоͷȨĪ˹ƿԼƻŷʵ־ƵļƻҶԶ˹ԵӰ졣

    һӰֱ۵ģҲǶ˹Զܵķӳǣв˶˹ĵԵȫĵص㣨ƽԭȱȻϵıʹ䰲ȫ۾һֱ۵ҲʹŷȨԱ֤ȫĶĻŷ޲ˣǿľӡĵ͡ЧʡȨṹʹŷ޹ϵϵռзĻҪأˣŷڶʱвͬѰ塣˹رԤָǽ߽ƽ󡪵˹һߣֹͣţаȫС38ŲڵԵͼȷʵڰȫΪṩӦı֤ӵԵµĽǶȿ  1812ء1941ϣҪڹĶŷƽԭϿභ£ʷ¾Ҫдˡԣ˹ŶϵмҪѶŷĿ֮£սʼָӺͰŷ׶ȡȨΪĵˡԼɢ󣬶˹ĵԵȫ״˼δйش仯ʧȥ2000๫ķǰء״˹ͬʵìܽȻʹһֲȫС˹˽ȻΪֻйĵܴȶ˹սѧҰзָŷͶ˹֮䱣ǧﳤȣԶ˹кôġʹ˹͹ҵĴǺ֮⡱39˹߻ӶĵԵһΪ񻯶˹滷ǿԣŷ޻޻棩Ҫص㣬ԳΪһıҪܵؿƹĽӰܱߵǶ˹ĵԵˣ˹⽻ȷҪ󣺡ֽ׶εսǣҪֹŷΪͬijֻشһҲ˹żŷıȫΪʵ40ǡǡԶ˹Ҫİȫʹֱ߽ʷϴδйӴľμŵѹ

    ڶӰDZڵģȻؼĺ̵ģϵʵҲϵ˹ķչδ˹Ĺϵ⡣Լڶ˹˼ɱﶼ⵽˼ҵķԣʼϲġ˹Ϊ˹ǰĸĸڻع顮ŷ޴ͥ¿ʼģҲ˵ǶٻĻش𡱡41ڶΪɡ򡰴ɡʷϡĻϺ϶Զ˹ŷ޵ijѪԵϵ˳ֵ֤ҪᵽһҪ˼ķڲҪҪֶ˹ԣǶ˹崫ͳʲôִӦñġǿ˹ҪijЩͬ㣨̾񣩺ʷѧϰǿڶ˹ִ·֤ijɹľ顢ʵںٵı֮·˹ԲܳΪѧϰϰijЩĶֻЩͳԹҵijݡҶȫԤ42ƵͼУŷڵĻϵĽӽ˹ͬתͷľͽѵԶ˹˵ǡ͸ԵģǿԳΪ˹İ;ӡ43Ҳ˵ŷӦóΪ˹ںϵ˹ȷڱԼͶ֮佨һԶŷȶҪסɻɳԼǰԱǰijЩ˹͹ɡϹ£ԼͶԱ֤Щҵİȫһ»ʵֶ˹ĵַ͡ʽȷ߽磬޵Դ񡱡44һƵġ״̬Ķŷϱ֤˹ĽСˣΪԼζڶ˹һǽ˶˹ںϵĿܡϽǹڱԼֻܼǿڡλۣͲһʽϵľ棬Ҳȷʵӳǵı֮ŷͳһ顣ǽԼ־ٶΪܵ¶˹͡ŷٴηѵIJ衲45    ˹ָ˼ŷ壩Զ̬Ȼɡŷǿ˹ĵԵŷĻȻͬŷĻͳԼڴ˻γɵбŷŷָ˹ĻصŷǵĵԵλüɴ˲ĶԶĻİݣ붫ļ徫ɴ˲ĶԹȨijѪԵϵ46˹ĵԵ幹ɡڽ̺Ļ˹ȻIJͬķ֧IJԷһ̫ƽ˶˹ǿ͹Ͽҵͻ47ǿκĸĸڶ˹ɱ⵽ʧܣΪʵʩָĸûпǵ˹ֵܵĿ48Ƕ϶Լǡǡ֤˶˹Ķܽܶ˹һҪС͹ռ䡣˵ɷԶǴʵսԵĽǶȳĻҪǴһֵۣӷ˹ռֽǶȳġζǰߵķ̬ȿսԵĺͿɱԵģߵ̬DZԵĺͺ㳣ġ

    ʷķӽǽӶ˹Ϊ켺붫űϵϬ˼ұ˹˵ΰ˼ɾ֮һ˽⵽ͬκһŷȫͬʷоʷʷǸͬ޹֮ͬŷ޸ʷжϡ49˹˵бŷʷǶԣҮȷָ˹еìԺ͸Կйأʷ֮ڶ˹ײ˹ڶߵ໥֮С˹岻Ǵŷ壬ҲǴ塣˹֣޴Ķһڶ˹УԶ໥50

    1516Ͷ˹γɺ󣬶˹ھϺȶĵλӱ˵ôۿʼɵʿһֱ׷Ž˹뷢ȻǴδ˽ںˣҲʿҪָ19кڵĸ͸ߣڴӵεȷġڰͬʱȻIJֵΪǣԼ˼IJԣɱص˶һص㣺붫УҶΪΪʵ׷ϺԾ쵼ڷϣ˼϶رֳ˶ʽȨʹȫԤ51˹һֲͬ໥ײͽϵ¿ʼʵִġЩײͽ϶Զ˹˵ֺ壬ڻýõѬյͬʱԵӡҲ̵˵һʽϻijЩɷϳΪĽףһ棬ڱĺֽһ˾롣Լװøˡ˹ɽڷڸġƶʷ˵ʱΪ˵ĵһ֣ڶ֣ԣǿʹʵִģ޷֣񣩣ҲͲܷ˼ġʤ52ɽֻǰһ߼ƶĹϵִܵ¾ϵһλܡѧߺ͢ȷָԣDzܱͬеġ53

    һͬĶƫŷǴ½һ磬ҲͼˡȻѧϰĶ䶫еʹУͼԸĶ۹Ұġ1930˹廹ֻڶġԽԡ54195060ֵķ˹ڶϼ˶ĶԼԶ̺Ͷȡŷ޵˼롲55˹˼롯ں̶ܴϾǹ˼롢۹˼롣ǿӦ˼ϵĶ˹˵ֶ˹˼룬Թٷʶ̬֣Ծӹ֪ʶӵ۳֣ΪȺڵġȥǡȻŵ˼Ҳϵõ˼56еĻжеķᡣ˶ԴdzһìģǼĽȽ޷ܡļֵìʿﶼܵõӳе˴ʼԷա57ӼֵʽһĹҰȫֱӸܵĶв롰ìܣıɵѣԼһЩ˼ҶײĶϤڶ޿ɱ˷򡣴ij̶ֳ˵ַʹϸĩԸ˼롰սʤ壬յͼö˹еijЩơʱ巢չʵ58

    ѹ˴Ӷʷչеó൱ۡĽۣ˹ǹϵеһɲȶأΪ̫ˣ޷ŷޣ̫ij̶һ޴޷ֱɵϵȥͬʱҲΪ໥ִԶеա˹19ͺ20͵ʷһӲϵͼͬϵĵжԺʶӰЭʷÿһζսЭزˣʲά屾ǰһ˼Ӧڶ˹IJ˹ϵġ޵ġʧˡ죬ɵź;ڶ˹ӦãͬʱҲԤϡ59

 

ŷ뱱Լ

 

    ̸ʱ뵽ԼIJơʵս뱱ԼǶŷҡŷ60Ϊʲôеϣ뱱ԼΪʲôٽȳΪĶͬDZԼеҪ⡣

    ڶŷڵԵеλ˵ΪŷչĻأҲǶŷĵ壩һֱŷ⽻ºζҪ̨֪ͬģսսʼڴˣսڶҲڴˡʵϣŷҴ1390ʼΪŷǿ󡣶ݵĶʷں̶ܴҲδڰȫijһŵˡ61ȻҲγΪǿּۻ۵ij루1938֮Ľڡ1939֮1940֮Ǻ1945ǰ֮ŶһĴεе˶ظڶŷ˵֪һDzҡ

    ŷصʷڶڷõӰ죺    һĻڽ̺ϵĶԡ62ͽݿ˵ǰٵ۹ͳµĹҲӰ̣ʵҲΪıءˣǰս£ΪعĸĻ̣뱱ԼҲͳΪ䡰عŷޡʵŷԡķչսԵһ֡ѹֶ˹Ҳϡŷм뱱Լ˵Ϊ˷ֹԶ˹в˵ǻعԼʷ͵ԵĽ̵һֱ֡63Щҿ뱱Լ֤ѶӰͻָŷͳĽ̲תң˶Ϊ˳Աʵ˺л֯ڴøֺ֧ͰǡǺ˹ǰڰ˹۹ռµĹᾫʽȷ棬൱ľ롣ֱʹýٲĿǰŷҵǰ棬Ҳʹȼ뱱ԼġԽŷҶԴ˵ļ˿ǡһ棬  1945Щҳֵת641995Щĸ˶˵صЩڷչȻijֲȷԡ۴ӹսʤɹϽǴάԵĽǶȿҪĿָЩҡ

    ׸ӡǿĴ˳¸õƵ彮ʵʹһ¡ŷ֮䡢֮ìҲδȫεΣƣҲʹŷڰȫѰǿǿŵıսĶŷ˸µìܺ⣬˱ݿͳΤȫա״̬ŷ˺ŷڴǰ˹ʱõԼ֮ȱϰȫĹʽṹŷƷսɺȨĸ¶󲻾ã𽥸еһ޿״IJȫСǿ䰲ȫв棬һǸõڲͻǶ˹IJȶ۴ƶڲìܿ˶ⲿв˵ǶҪһܽڵġƿеİȫơ

    ˹̶ȲһɳڶŷԡͳʹһЩŷǿҵķڶսԶŷ˹һЩƽߺжǣij̶ֳϻֵⷽΪͻǡάʼռǵöǰͳεáݿ˺˹工ʷ϶Զ޶С65ɴ˿ɼݿͼ뱱ԼǴӡع顱ĽǶģôĶ˹ָ۹ͳĿܡͬĻҲӳ˹工˺ͱǶԶ̬ȡ66ĽӽҲӰǼ뱱ԼĽ̡

 

   

 

    й˵ԹŲıߣıһʱıȫߣıһ򡣡67˵ƳߣδʤߣʤΡ68Լ϶Ϊδ˹ϵͶһıҲΪս¶ϵеһԼһ鳤˹÷˵ԼĿģ˽Ҫ˲μӣѵ¹ѹȥ죬Լ鳤θأһԱԼжŷһԵԵشݽеҡҲһ˹ЭѱڶԿһֿԱƶԺƶԺӦö˫û롰ͽе⡣ԭǺܸӵġĶѧ˵УһһڰմԼķʽƶߣ񣻶ΪԼĿͼǸеģǺƽģԴ飬ǻġʵϣ֡Ըfatal  canceitײ⽻ѧ˵СʵֵԤԡselffulfilling  prophecyڹʹϵгΪЧӦspiral  effects˫ԼȡǺġģǷʵģǶΪԷ߾вԡԡ͵ϢŤ³ͻսһαԼ˹Э飬˫ij̶ֳϰˡЧӦӶ˿ܵ¶Կᡣ

    ˹ԱԼӦԵġԼνŭ֮ߣ˥ȡ棬ν֮衣˹ҶյĸĸγԽԽѹǣΪ˹Ȼ뱱Լ̸лʵƵ档ȻԼ˹һƶЭ˹ԽıԼDZڵľ˫ĸԵϵIJͻδյĽ˹׶˹һ£ʱҲһǣ˹δ뽨һµ۹ֻһһ±ԼijһԹѹиˡ

    (α༭ϡ÷)

 

עͣ

 

1μŵ¡ȣʷоϣϺ1987棬74ҳ

2ٶΪܻӰ죬ôͨԻЧƣͿܸıΪġй㷺ĺ壬ȰȻҲĻμJames Dougherty Robert PfaltzgraffJr1981Contanding Theories of International Relations (Harper NewNew York), Chap.2

3See HalfordMackinder1962Democratic Ideas and Reality. New YorkNortou. See H.J. MackinderThe  Geographical Pivot of Historyin Geographical JournalNo.231904pp42l-437.

4See Nicholas  Spykman1944The Geography of Peace (New York, Harcourt Brace and Campany).

5μ񣺡ǻ˽硷ءܿ127աҫһƪڱԼ˼ҲĿһ㿴Լս˼άһΪչDZԼǹʵľ֯Ӧùܵ顣

6μSamueI  P. HuntingtonThe Clash of Civilizations and The Remaking of World OrderNew York1996.͢Ȿ߼Ķ顣

7Ÿۡӡ1985棬25ҳ

8ԵۼǴΪ֮ijͻ⣬ȨµġЩۼҲαͻƶȻĺƵԼְ𡣲μGeorge LiskaQuest for EquilibriumAmerica and the Balance of Power on Land and See (Johns Hopkins Press), p.25.

9See Nicholas JSpykman and Abbie A. RollinsGeography and Foreign Policy,American Political Science ReviewJane, 1939.

10See Nicholas SpykmanThe Geography of Peace. Harcourt BraceNew York 1944, p.20See N.JSpykmanAmericas Strateqy in World Politics (New YorkHarcourt Brace1942).

11ԵѧУʵӪۡ

12μN.J.˹Ƥƽĵѧ1944ŦԼ棻˹Ƥеսԡ1942ŦԼ档

13μӢȣʷо£Ϻ1987棬180ҳ

14See Samuel P. HuntingtonThe WestUniqueNot Universalin Foreign AffairsNov./Dec. 1996.

15μӢȣʷо()Ϻ1987棬439ҳ

16񣺡ʷĹ۵㿴ŷޡءʾۡ199734ºš

17˹ѧԺôо޸Ϊ˹Ŀǰ׷6Ŀ꣺һǼάֶϵʹ϶˹µĹʹϵϵӵвͬλdz϶˹ŷްȫشȨǰѱԼľºС޶ȣDZֶ˹սԺȶǽԶ˹óϵ⣻Ƕ˹ó֯Ͱֲȹ֯ӦкϷλμ˹1997325ա

18μ޸򣺡ʹʧȥжɡϢ1997527ա

19񣺡ŷޱŷؽ֪ʶ1991棬126ҳ

20ͬ飬144ҳ

21Francis  FukuyamaThe End of HistoryThe National InterestSummer l989p.3.

22ClitonHoward  II20 press conferenceU.SInformation ServiceBulletinNovember 21,1996.

23Anthony LakeEffective engagement in a changing world Bulletin of USISDecember 20,1993.

24G. John IkenberryThe Myth of PlstCold War  ChaosForeign AffairsMay/June1996.

25͵һǣڰɭִʱιĶ˹һܱ¼˵սҪһ̣빲֮˼붷תࣺս⽻ʷϲᣬ֪ʶ1994棬242ҳ

26ͬ飬112ҳ

27¶أҴһܼ縺һεĹҡ籨

28ġFirst News Conference with Secretary of State Madeleine AlbrightJanuary  241997Bulletin printed by  USISJanuary 27 1997ƶȫص㽫Ӧսתʱ

29ԡĿɽġʷսᡱۡ͢ٵġͻۣðؼϡǿȨµƽȵȡӳһͬĹ۵ǰΪȽĴѷĹҺΪĶ͡࡯ࣺ⽻˼ʷйѧ1995棬401ҳ

30һɲij񣺡սŷʹϵйѧ1987棬66ҳ

31Ƚ˹ʧҡйѧ1995棬194ҳ

32սҰȫսУʹúķһֱλWilliam JPerryDefense in an Age of Hope Foreign AffairsNovember/December, 1996

33Dean AchoonHarvard  University  Press CambridgeMessachusetts1958.

34ǰҰȫ־ֳ¶ķԼ֯ƶ˹ʢʱ1996428ա

35ɳƽγе񡷣̳1995314ա

36μ񣺡Ĺвҵܿ1996617աȽ˹ɷ¼ձ1996822ա

371994314ڻʢٴѧݽ

38μ˹۵㡷˼˹ȫ1961棬918ҳ˹ָĶȫߡսʱγɵĶֽ߻һ¡

39ҧѧӣڧ񡡧ҧ֧٧ѧߧӡѧߧ 90ԧէޣ, . 1994, .8-9.

40˹߹Ļԭ

41..ݧӧڧ ڧ񣺧䡡ߧѧߧѧӧߧલԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧۡڧէ֧ݧԧڧڣܧӧѡ1994.113.

42μ.٧֧, ֧֧ҧѧا֧ߧڧ֡..ѧۧէѧ, ѧߧѡ衡ӧеز֡

43.ԧާ, ڧ񡡧ڡߧѧ񡡧ӧѣ֧اէߧѧէߧѧ񡡧اڧ٧ߧ, .1994,.4

44άơԼ¶İȫŷ޵ȶ¡ŷްȫ19967ڡ

45Լ³߼1994113ա

46й˼ſɲμڧ񡡧ڡӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧۡާڧ1993еһϵ¡

47..ӡߧ֧ڧ񡡧ߧѧڧߧѧէӧߧ ҧ֧٧ѧߧڡڧ 1995 ԧէ壬ܧӧ 1995.

48.ѧߧ, 䡡ӧҧӪ93ܡҧѧު95ӧҧէߧѧ񡡧ާէӣ.1995, .10.

49˹1846ѧһƳ

50ᡤҮ򣺡˹˼롷1995棬2ҳ

51йضжԭһģѲڱĵķ롣

52μ˹ɽʷսᡷһġ

53μѶ͢٣Ļеģձġġ־199611l2ºš

54˹һͺֵŷ岢ޱϵIJǰߴĻĽǶȡߴӵԵĽǶ֤˶ıʲͶչ·

55Բμ˹ġʥᡤз˹ġŷޡһ顣

56㣬ܧѧ񡡧ڧէ֧񡡧ߧѡڧڧ֧ܧޡ֧֧ܧ֧ާܧ֣ӧҧէߧѧ񡡧ާէ . 1992, .6.

57㣬о˹Ү˹ն᯵˵˼仯

58˵Ƕ˼ʮ׼ȷġٴαֳʵϣĶӺնᯡѩ˹͡ɡ̳жĶų⣬˶չģʽ߼

59շ򣺡ʢٵıԼ˹ΪС֥Ӹ̳1997325ա

60ǸسΪжŷͰͶɵΪ㣬˵ڶսֵθ

61ǣ19l2꣩⣬ŷҳΪִ1918Ժ漴𼪶ġߡһ֣ڰȫϳΪӢġսǰϦһֹҽάҲٲãΪļšijԱսֱΪͥҪɲ֡

62ݿˡ˹工˹壬Ļ̺̣ˣŷ̺½̣ǻɣŷ̣˹ԲͬĸûĸǺǰϵĴΪ˹ˣǰŷ̣ߵڽ̹Ϊӡ

63..ާڧߧӣ֧ۧ桡ӧߧ֧ۡӧߧѡ٧ѧѧݡڡڧߧ֧ڧ۪.1994, .12.

64սŷ·ľأЩҵʱҲܲɷֵġ

6519ķ˹岢Դڶ˹ǽݿ˹工ˡ

66ǶԶ˹ڽŷްȫϵͶԶĺĹıʾ⡣

67ԡԶǨ顷

68μӱƪ

 

ԵΪһҡ33

    ֮ܶƶԼ̵ʷԨԴڵ߼ͶԴڽŷߣӳ˶ԵεĻʹйĻ̬ȡ

    ĵּǾ󿴡йߵʷԨԴǣ̽־ܴ߹̵IJͬ׶嶯ԼӰ⽻ߵЩ֪Ĺصо

 

Լеġ˹ء

 

    ˹ءȻDZԼӿ춫ٶΨһĶ϶ҪĿǡ仰˵˹ƺߵı仯ԼԽԽìܣӷ̼˱Լͼȷͼǿһ棬Ӹ㷺Ŀռԣ˹Ӱ졢úͼֵҪرҪˣ˹ԶûͻḶ̌ҲӰ˺ͽӰսʤɹʱߡķͼӷӵг˹ìܵ߼㣬ڹͶĶԺ˫ϵݱرҪġ

    նľʹŷһȳڻȸԾ֮Уƺ컯Ҫ塢вġ⡱֮ŷ޵̫ƽʢѾŷ޽нҶ˹ԼҲȷˣѸȷʽƣھʵгõ񣬲֤ΪΨһǵߡȻ˫ܿͷⲢô򵥡

    гõӽǽͣսս¡ġƶ塱߼ʵǣڲг̨ĸΪ壨ңŷͬгԭ򣨹ֵۣͬǰ£ͨijƶȺ͹򣬹淶ǵΪǿǵ໥ӶﵽгȶĿġɴ˿ɼ趨ĹȶĺǸΪĿԤԺȷԡȻ˹ϵijЩȡõĽչǵijЩģĹͬǡǡܣҲܽĵ⣬ȻҲӰ˹ϵؼ⣬˹δȥܶ˹ĵͼijȷı֤ĿǰĴ𰸶ҪôDzʵģҪôDzġ˹ĸĸȻƺƴȴЧ΢ת񵴺ͳֵһϵⲻΣƶȵȶҲ˷19931995ѡԳЩĴġһϲDzΰ˹ġϲǶ˹Σʹڳʱһ겻񣨲Ƚ˹ƣ1015ڶΣ״̬ȴһIJǵǶ˹δDzȷģȻвŷްȫȶҪԴ˹ʹ˶ĵġ

    Ӵͳʵ۳ȻֳͻҪȷDZڵĵˣ϶ʵĵ˾սŷ޳ֵġĵIJȶӰµºӵɽҲŷ޿ƽģѸٳΪһսգ⽫ijֺ;Ե⽻ӶտƵض34׵Ƕ˹IJȶԼɴ˿һϵ⣨ɢͻȵȣ˵սڼľ˼롢ֵƶȡȵвôǵĶ˹Ķ¹ϯ³ɳƽ˵ԶһȶԤϵĶ˹ȻúװȫDz֪ǵʵں̶ֳڶ˹ٽеơ35

    Ҫͳһļֵ۳ΪϷչ׳Ķ˹˼ʶ̬ΪġͳһֵǸģ˹ϽԿĵ۹ĵ·ǿ˹Ȼƻƶȷȡ˲תĽչȻΪ˹˳طչΪгòͬߵĿҵ뷨ҲˡָڶһȱͳĹңʹЩʿ˼ľҲδΪֲ˼άʽеĻܣܿij˼롣Ƚ˹϶ֻƤŵʽȨ36ԣر𡰱ۡԤ⣺˹ھ֮ΪͬжԵһȨ塢塢۹Ĺҡ37

    ɴ˿ɼ˹ĿǰĺDZڵķչ״ʢеֹʹϵ˼άꡣˣӻʢٵӴΪҪֶΡȡ˹ŷȶĹͬʱעֹ۹ĸܶŷɵΣ

    ̸˹ضԶĴ̼ʱܲᵽ˹һ⡣ǿԽΪһֵ͵ġСϷģʽͼͼм趨Լ˹˫ͶԭЭ˫ʧ2֣趨Լֶ䷶ΧܲĿǰձͬIJٽ˹ãԼ5֣˹ʧ5֣趨˹ɹضס˶˹5֣Լʧ5֣趨Լ˹Ͷⷢشͻ˫ʧ20֡Ȼֲؼһ׼ȷĺϢȻڶԭȷǰȷ󣬶˹ṩʮֻҺìܵźšʱʾԼҲԸ뱱ԼʱΪԼսʾѡɣǿµĶԿͷѡڴ¿ܵѡʵǺٵģȻֹͣӻһܱ֤˹δġôֻܼ¶ƶ˹ĵԵս԰šָ֮һ۵ķ⣬ΪԶ϶Ӱ죬߲Ǿеġ

   

    Ī˹ҲԭͶϣûʵ֡һ˹ΪսԼδսսܹԴ˹Ҷ˹ӦΪһƽȵĻǿšɿʵִĿ;ǡչҵУЩռʷԼȷӦеĵλ仰˵˹ȻѣһŽǿֲ֤ͨܲǼѵ¡ǣö˹˺ЩջǣȻΪ磬ŷӰȨǰһõСƣȽ˹˵ĿֻһǰԵĴڹϺ֮ڶ˹תǵͼУʵʩµЪƻʵתͲʹĹؼɵ⣬ṩģԮDZ֤˹ĸﲻתһͶʣ˶òǾϵĺοԴŵҪʵܡҲġܣΪĿǰ߱һȱӲȱĹѪܣΪڶ˹δչȱԤԵ£Ԯг׼ϱȻҪհǰ˺ʹ˹˴ϵƭĸо

    ˹ϵķΪһЩĵߡȻ˹ϣĵλ˹׼ԼʵǿԶĿơָǰԵսԾݵӰ졢ƶйȹսԺϵȻ˹ԮҪ󣬶˹ͼͨھijЩ߼ʽѣЩڶȻҲЩεĹҡ˹ߵı仯ֽһǿIJθСرģ˹ǿڶ쵼ãڵԵϻָ۹ͳǰס˹ìܾͬѩһԽԽ󡣱ԼƻҲ˶ͲϽչɴֵ˫ŷްȫְϵĶ

    ŷ޽Ƕ˹⽻Ĵͳָ˼롣⵽䱣֤ȫԵΪҪԣΪŷ֯ڸ߲Ρ㷺սϴŷްȫЧƣԼŷ˺ͶӦΪƽʵŷЭͿ֮£Ϊŷްȫ֧ͬʵʾǣ˹ΪŷްȫеΣȻҲӦоͷȨĪ˹ƿԼƻŷʵ־ƵļƻҶԶ˹ԵӰ졣

    һӰֱ۵ģҲǶ˹Զܵķӳǣв˶˹ĵԵȫĵص㣨ƽԭȱȻϵıʹ䰲ȫ۾һֱ۵ҲʹŷȨԱ֤ȫĶĻŷ޲ˣǿľӡĵ͡ЧʡȨṹʹŷ޹ϵϵռзĻҪأˣŷڶʱвͬѰ塣˹رԤָǽ߽ƽ󡪵˹һߣֹͣţаȫС38ŲڵԵͼȷʵڰȫΪṩӦı֤ӵԵµĽǶȿ  1812ء1941ϣҪڹĶŷƽԭϿභ£ʷ¾Ҫдˡԣ˹ŶϵмҪѶŷĿ֮£սʼָӺͰŷ׶ȡȨΪĵˡԼɢ󣬶˹ĵԵȫ״˼δйش仯ʧȥ2000๫ķǰء״˹ͬʵìܽȻʹһֲȫС˹˽ȻΪֻйĵܴȶ˹սѧҰзָŷͶ˹֮䱣ǧﳤȣԶ˹кôġʹ˹͹ҵĴǺ֮⡱39˹߻ӶĵԵһ